AIDS. The disease is quite young but it has already ruined the lives of millions of people. AIDS is considered a slow infectious disease because it may take more than 15 years from the initial infection to the biological death. The disease is characterized by four stages:
• The first stage is characterized by an acute infection and manifests itself as a common viral infection with such symptoms as fever, cough, skin rash, etc.
• The second stage is asymptomatic and there are no signs of the disease at all
• The third stage occurs after 3-5 years and is accompanied by a significantly reduced immunity
• The fourth stage ends up with the complete destruction of the immune system.
According to statistics, about 50 million people suffer from AIDS nowadays and about a half of this quantity doesn’t even suspect about the disease.
CANCER. Cancer is a malignant tumor characterized by an abnormal proliferation of tissue. Breast cancer and lung cancer are the most common types of cancer. It is believed that cancer is directly related to the violations in the genetic apparatus of cells. In its turn, it’s closely connected to the environmental conditions, availability of carcinogens in food and water, etc.
TUBERCULOSIS. Tubercle bacillus that provokes tuberculosis is virtually everywhere. A sick person who has the tuberculosis bacillus in the sputum becomes the source of infection. Infection may not manifest itself for a long time getting into the organism of healthy people. But when a person’s immunity reduces, for example, as a result of poor nutrition or adverse living conditions, the development of tuberculosis begins.
MALARIA. Malaria is transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. There are about fifty species of this mosquito worldwide. It should be noted that mosquitoes are only the carriers of the disease. Malaria develops during ten days in the human organism. Further symptoms are manifested in the form of pain in the liver, anemia, destruction of red blood cells. The overall process is accompanied by a high fever. About a third of all malaria cases lead to death.
MAD COW DISEASE. This disease is also called Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. It took the lives of several million people over the past few decades. Prions are the carriers of the disease. These abnormal proteins are able to affect the spinal cord and brain. A human may become infected even after eating a tiny piece of the contaminated meat. Apart from that the infection can penetrate with the saliva of the sick cow or pass from mother to child. There are also cases when the bites of bats provoked the disease. The first symptom is itching and burning followed by depression, fear of death, nightmares, apathy, rapid pulse and thirst.
POLIOMYELITIS. Poliomyelitis is considered the children’s disease because it affects children before seven years of age. During the first 14 days, the disease is latent, such symptoms as fever, sore throat, vomiting, nausea, muscle weakening, partial or full paralysis develop. If a therapy is ineffective, there is a high probability the child will remain paralyzed forever. It is believed that the disease was overcome twenty years ago. But, unfortunately, only in Tajikistan 300 cases were recorded last year. Fifteen children have not survived.
AVIAN FLU. Birds are the carriers of the avian or bird influenza. Humans get infected through airborne droplets and after eating the poultry meat and eggs infected with the virus. Symptoms are very similar to those of common flu, but after some time atypical pneumonia develops that leads to death. So far, the scientists haven’t invented the effective vaccine against avian flu.
LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Patients with systemic lupus suffer from the destruction of internal organs that is accompanied by a rash on the cheeks and nose. The main symptoms are a pain in joints, red spots on the head, face, hands, ears, and breasts. Patients also complain of sensitivity to sunlight, fatigue, and anxiety. Doctors still do not know the exact reasons of the illness. Presumably, the development of lupus is related to some violations in the immune system functioning.
CHOLERA. Cholera is caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholera that spreads among humans through food and water. The disease develops in the intestine and causes diarrhea, pain around the navel, kidney pain and vomiting. Cholera leads to death in most cases. Frequent outbreaks of cholera occur in Africa and South America.
EBOLA FEVER. Presently, the disease took the lives of several thousand people. Animals may be the carriers of the disease. The person may also get sick after the contact with the blood of another sick person. The incubation period of Ebola fever lasts from four to six days. The patients suffer from a severe headache, muscle pain, and diarrhea. A cough as well as sharp chest pain appears later. Hemorrhagic syndrome and nose and uterine bleeding develop at the end of the incubation period. The patient dies from blood loss and shock after two weeks since the initial symptoms.